Denarius - IMP TIBERIUS - LIVIA
Tiberius Claudius Nero
Born: B.C. 42
Emperor: A.D. 14-37
Obverse: Portrait laureate head right - TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS
Reverse: Livia seated right on chair with orate legs holding scepter and olve branch - PONTIF MAXIM
Inscriptions: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS (Tiberius Caesar Divi Augusti Filius Augustus) - Tiberius Caesar Son of the Divine Augustus and Augustus. This is the name of the Emperor Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus, previously Tiberius Claudius Nero, commonly refered to as just Tiberius. / PONTIF MAXIM (Pontifex Maximus) - Greatest Pontiff refering to his position as the head of the college of preists of the Roman religion.
The obverse of the coin depicts Tiberius, the second Emperor of Rome. The obverse inscription is his name as it was after the death of his adopted father Augustus and shows his connection to the the Julian line. With Augustus he is connected to his adopted father, the first emperor of Rome and with the name Caesar his connection to Julius Caesar through his adopted fathers adopted father. With Divi Augustus Filius, he reminds us of the fact that he is the son and successor of a God.
Depicted on the reverse is Livia Drusilla (Julia Augusta) wife of Austustus and mother to Tiberius by her first husband, Tiberius Claudius Nero. Livia is the link between the Julian and Claudian families that that gives their names to the founding imperial Julio-Claudian dynasty. Livia was Augustus's third wife and he was her second husband. She was from an old and distinguished family who excersized great influence over Augustus and even more so Tiberius. Tiberius also reminds us that he is the Pontifex Maximus or the head of the college of preists of the Roman religion.Both a religious, state and political office.
Minted early in his reign (est. 16 A.D. in Lugdunum), this coin is often identified (whether correctly or fanciful notion) as the so called Tribute Penny mentioned in in the bible.
Mark 12:14 "...Is it lawful to give tribute to Caesar, or not?"
The portrait on the coin may certainly have been of Tiberius, it also could have been Augustus. The coin could have been a denarius but it could very well have been another type of coin, or another type of denarius. The simple fact is there is just no way of knowing what exact coin type he held or who exactly was on it. There is, however, no doubt that if any of the commonly estimated years given for the birth and death of jesus are correct, Tiberius was certainly in power at this time. Tiberius would have been nearing the end of a long 22 year rule that began when Jesus was most likely in his teens.
The emperor Tiberius was born Tiberius Claudius Nero at Rome, November 16, 42 BC. He was the eldest son to Livia Drusilla and her first husband who was also named Tiberus Claudius Nero. Both his mother and father were members of the wealthy and powerful Claudian family, specifically the Claudii Nerones. Since their rise to promenence in the days of the early Republic, members of the old patrician Claudia gens could often be found occupying the highest positions of power in Rome. In 39 BC Livia divorced Tiberus Claudius Nero while pregnant with his second child to marry Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (later known as Augustus). The birth of his younger brother, Nero Claudius Drusus (Drusus), would occur soon after in March of 38 BC.
The two power families merged and after the battle of Actium and the defeat of Antony and Cleopatra, Tiberius became the adopted son of the First Emperor of Rome. While still quite young he rode in his adopted fathers chariot during his Triumph in 29 BC for that battle and spent his teens as a prince in the first imperial family. The earliest public appearance of Tiberius when he gave the eulogy on the death of his biological father in 32 BC.
The new empire was not very formalized. Augustus was the first emperor and there was no formula, law or precedence as to how the emperial title would pass on the death of Augustus. While the empire would soon become a gaint bureaucracy with many laws, rules and traditions, the matter of succession was never written in concrete and often changed on the wishes of the emperor in power. Augustus adopted Tiberius and his brother Drusus and saw them as potential heirs as well as representatives of imperium but he counted Marcus Agrippa, his close friend, son-in-law, general and a hero of Actium as a possible successor to the empire as well as his nephew and son-in-law Marcellus who was roughly the same age as Tiberius.
Marcellus became ill and passed away in 23 BC at the age of 19, Drusus, who had become a celebrated general, died in 9 BC when he fell from his horse and died a month latter, probably from complications of that injury, and Agrippa, the true heir apparent who was almost as powerful and popular as Augustus himself, passed away in 12 BC at the age of 51. With the death of these men, Tiberius moved higher on the list of possible successors to Augustus. The idea that his mother Livia may have been somehow involved in the deaths of these men were put forth by some historians such as Tacitus and Cassius Dio who generally characterize her as plotting to install her son as emperor over all others and go as far as to suggest she killed her own husband to further her son into power.
Young Tiberius was well educated with an interest in Greek rhetoric. He served as an advocate in court until he entered into the service of his step father in the east under Marcus Agrippa. He would spend much of his life with the miltary, first under Agrippa in Armenia and soon after in his own right. He would greatly expand the empire and, in doing so, become one of Romes greatest generals with his successes against the Gaul (where he is said to have discovered the source of the Danube for the Romans), and his conquest of Pannonia, Dalmatia, Raetia and parts of Germania.
In 19 BC, Tiberius was married to Vipsania, the daughter of Agrippa, and by most accounts he cared greatly for her. With the death of Agrippa, Augustus requested Tiberius divorce Vipsania and to marry instead Julia the Elder, the duaghter of Augustus and widow to Agrippa. A union that was not a happy one as it is reported he still longed for Vipsania. Tiberius continued to campaign for Augustus and Augustus continued to place upon him greater responsibility. He served as consul twice and in 6 BC and he was granted tribunicia potestas and control in the East. With the death of Agrippa (his father-in-law), Tiberius was given more power and responsibility as he was clearly being prepared for the possibility that he may succeed Augustus.
In a strange twist, just as he was being elevated to new heights, that same year he chose to instead retreat from from public and military life and retire to Rhodes. The reasons for this can only be speculation but it is clear that Tiberius was not satisfied. It may have to do with the adoption of Lucius and Gaius by Augustus. Tiberius may have seen his own elevation as a stop gap measure until these young men came of age. There is also ample evidence that he was not happy in his marraige to Julia. Tacticus points to this as the main reason for his retirement.
This again put into question the matter of succession as Augustus was now forced to rely on his two teenage grandsons, Gaius and Lucius who were far from ideal because of age and inexperience. The situation became even more dire after the death of Lucius in 2 AD after which Augustus allowed Tiberius to return to Rome. It is reported that Tiberius almost immediatly regretted his decition to retire but was then forbidden to return by Augustus until the death of Lucius. After the death of Gaius in Armenia in 4 AD and the banishment of Aggrippa Postumus for unknown reasons in 7 AD (sources depict the young son of Agrippa as 'brutish' and 'devoid of every good quality'), Augustus had few other options than to again look to Tiberius as a possible heir. Certainly Tiberius could not help but be aware that he seemed to be the very last choice for the job.
He was returned from his retirement with the understanding that he would adopt his nephew Germanicus, the very popular son of his popular brother Nero Claudius Drusus from whom three later emperors claim direct decent from (his son Claudius, his grandson Gaius 'Caligula' and his great-grandson Nero, were direct decendants). Tiberius had a very close relationship with his brother. Tiberius named his son Drusus after his brother and his brother named his own son Tiberius Claudius Nero who would then take the name Germanicus, an honorific title that his father won for his actions against the German tribes and he himself would earn in his own right as comander of Germania. Tiberius was officially adopted by Augustus and given Tribunician power and a share of imperial power. In 13 AD he was raised to co-emperor and shared power equally with his adopted father. In August of 14 AD Augustus passed away at the age of 75 and Tiberius was confirmed by his will as his heir by mid September and Tiberius acclaimed Princep Civitis or Emperor at the age of 55.